• #include cmath contains built-in math functions such as pow(2,5).
  • Memory for objects can be allocated with the keyword new and de-allocated with delete.
  • A function may have its own variables that are known as local variables.
  • External (global) variables are defined outside of the functions and main program.
  • Several programmers can work on a program containing several functions independently.
  • Functions cause code redundancy and do not allow reusability.
  • In C++ every function must have parameters and a return value.
  • The default way in which variables are passed to functions is by reference.
  • In C scanf ("%d", &x) the & operator is needed so that the value read will be stored in that address.
  • The function definition contains the code for the actions the function performs.
  • Using global variables may have side effects and produce unwanted results.
  • When a variable is declared within a block (scope), it is accessible to the entire program.
  • int findsum(int a, int b) is an example of a function declaration.
  • A variable that holds an address of another variable is known as a pointer.
  • Pointers provide open access to memory addresses and, for this reason, can be a security risk.
  • The address of a variable is accessed by an ampersand (&), known as an address operator.
  • When parameters are passed by a pointer, no change is reflected back to the original variable.
  • A reference variable can hold more than one address.
  • The name of an array is an address that points to the first element of the array.
  • The keyword new (ex. x=new int ) allocates a memory location for a pointer variable.
  • delete x will free the memory associated with the pointer variable x.
  • Memory for arrays must be allocated dynamically if the size of the array is known in advance.
  • When you pass the name of an array to a function, all changes will affect the original array.
  • The -> operator (ex. p->next ) is used to access a pointer member.
  • An advantage of linked lists is that the amount of storage used can be determined at run-time.
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