Queues have many uses. One use of a queue is that it can be used to help find the fastest way out of a maze! The queue is an integral part of a search that is more generally called a Breadth First Search. The idea is as follows. Given a starting point in a maze, travel to all places adjacent to it and mark these as being 1 step away from the start point. Then, for each of these spots that are 1 step away, try travelling to all adjacent spots that are not yet visited. Mark these as 2 spots away. Continue until one of the spots you mark is an exit! By hand, it’s quite easy to visually solve this problem. In order to write a program to do it for a 2D array maze, you need a queue that keeps track of each place you have reached that you haven’t yet tried to visit new places from. The queue is necessary because to get shortest distances, you must process each possible location in the order in which you arrived to them. In addition, as you travel, you should mark which places you’ve reached so far, so that you don’t try to travel to them again. This second part is critical! Without it, you’ll revisit some squares many, many times, resulting in a very slow algorithm.

Let’s run through an example by hand, showing what has to happen, visually in code, in both the queue and the 2D array that is storing all shortest distances. We initialize any unvisited square to -1 to indicate that it is in fact, unvisited. When we visit that square, we will update its value to the shortest distance to travel there.

Consider the following maze:

~~~~~~~

~XXXXX~

~X-S-X~

~--X-X~

~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~

Let’s assume we can only move up, down, left and right from where we currently are. Let S denote the starting square, let X denote an illegal square to move to, let ~ represent the outer boundary to which we are trying to get to, and let – denote a square which is free to visit.

Our initial arrays and queue would look like this:

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Queue: (2,3)

~XXXXX~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~X-S-X~ -1 -1 -1 0 -1 -1 -1

~--X-X~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

At this point, we dequeue the next item and try to go to all possible adjacent squares, which are (2, 2) and (2, 4). We enqueue both of these into the queue, marking that the distance to both of them is 0 + 1 = 1. It does not matter which order we enqueue these two items. (The 0 comes from the distance to (2,3) the +1 is for the move left or right.) After this iteration, we have the following:

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Queue: (2,2), (2,4)

~XXXXX~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~X-S-X~ -1 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1

~--X-X~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

Next, we dequeue (2,2) and look for its unvisited neighbors (note that (2,3) is visited because in the distance array, 0 is stored in that slot, not -1.) The only unvisited neighbor of (2, 2) is (3, 2), so we update the distance to (3, 2) and enqueue it to get:

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Queue: (2,4), (3,2)

~XXXXX~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~X-S-X~ -1 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1

~--X-X~ -1 -1 2 -1 -1 -1 -1

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

Next, we dequeue (2,4) and look for its unvisited neighbors (note that (2,3) is visited because in the distance array, 0 is stored in that slot, not -1.) The only unvisited neighbor of (2, 4) is (3, 4), so we update the distance to (3, 4) and enqueue it to get:

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Queue: (3,2), (3,4)

~XXXXX~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~X-S-X~ -1 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1

~--X-X~ -1 -1 2 -1 2 -1 -1

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

Now, we dequeue (3,2) and look for its unvisited neighbors The only unvisited neighbors of (3, 2) are (3, 1), and (4, 2). We update the distance to both of these and enqueue to get:

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Queue: (3,2), (3,4)

~XXXXX~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~X-S-X~ -1 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1

~--X-X~ -1 3 2 -1 2 -1 -1

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 3 -1 -1 -1 -1

Theoretically, we could be smart enough to recognize that (4, 2) is on the boundary and that the shortest way out is 3. In code though, most people end up waiting to stop the search until (4, 2) is dequeued, so in this trace, we will continue from this point. Here is the current state:

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Queue: (3,4), (3,1), (4, 2)

~XXXXX~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~X-S-X~ -1 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1

~--X-X~ -1 3 2 -1 2 -1 -1

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 3 -1 -1 -1 -1

Now, we dequeue (3, 4) and get to this state, once we perform all necessary duties:

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Queue: (3,1), (4,2), (4,4)

~XXXXX~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~X-S-X~ -1 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1

~--X-X~ -1 3 2 -1 2 -1 -1

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 3 -1 3 -1 -1

Next, we dequeue (3, 1):

~~~~~~~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Queue:(4,2),(4,4),(3,0),(4,1)

~XXXXX~ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

~X-S-X~ -1 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1

~--X-X~ 4 3 2 -1 2 -1 -1

~~~~~~~ -1 4 3 -1 3 -1 -1

Finally, when we get here, we dequeue (4, 2) and realize that we’re out of the maze and return our final answer of 3. Note: If you want, you can return this value right when this spot would have been enqueued.

Given a maze as described previously, determine whether or not there is a way to escape to the boundary, and if so, what the shortest distance to escape the maze to any of the boundary positions is. At each move, you may move up, down, left or right from your previous spot, so long as the new spot isn’t forbidden.

The first line of the input file will contain a single positive integer, c (c ≤ 100), representing the number of input cases. The input cases follow, one per line. The first line of each input case will contain two positive integers, r(3 ≤ r ≤ 300), and c(3 ≤ c ≤ 300), representing the number of rows and columns, respectively, in the maze. The following r lines will contain strings of exactly c characters, describing the contents of that particular row using the symbols described above (~, X, -, S). You are guaranteed that the first and last rows and first and last columns will only contain the border character, ~. You are guaranteed that this character will not appear anywhere else in the grid. Exactly one non border character will be an S, so there will always be exactly one starting location. Finally, the rest of the squares will either be -, to indicate that that square is valid to travel to, or X, to indicate that you may not travel to that square.

For each case, if it’s possible to reach the border of the maze, output the fewest number of steps necessary to reach any border square. If it’s not possible, output -1.

2

3 3

~~~

~S~

~~~

5 6

~~~~~~

~XXXX~

~XS-X~

~-XX-~

~~~~~~

1

-1

You must implement a queue of ordered pairs or integers to receive full credit on this assignment. A significant portion of the grade will NOT come from execution, but rather the implementation of an appropriate struct to store a queue AND the implementation of the Breadth First Search algorithm described in this problem write-up.

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