• From the following languages, which language is the most orthogonal?
  • What is aliasing?
  • Which programming domain best describes C?
  • Which of the following is not a factor in readability?
  • Which of the following is not a characteristic of the overall cost of a programming language?
  • What prevented Ada from becoming popular in its early days?
  • What category of programming languages best fits the von Neumann computer architecture?
  • What kind of language is LISP?
  • What was the main driving factor behind the structured programming paradigm which emerged in 1970s?
  • Which of the following can be attributed to John von Neumann?
  • What is a token?
  • A grammar is ambiguous if it:
  • Which of the following does not belong to an attribute grammar?
  • Which of the following sentences cannot be derived using the following grammar:
(Hint: look at the terminal symbols) expr --> term {( + | - ) term} term --> factor {( * | / ) factor} factor --> a | b | c
  • The LHS of a context-free rule consists of:
  • What is the weakest precondition for the following assignment statement:
x = 2 * ( y - x) + x { x > 10}
  • The start symbol in a grammar is:
  • What did Chomsky propose?
  • Which of the following are terminal symbols in the grammar rule:
expr --> expr { + term } | ( expr )
  • Which of the following are nonterminal symbols in the grammar rule:
expr --> expr {( + | - ) term} | term
  • Which of the following are skipped by the lexical analyzer?
  • Which of the following errors can be detected by a lexical analyzer?
  • What kind of derivation is produced by bottom-up parsers?
  • The complexity of general parsing algorithms for any unambiguous grammar is:
  • The pairwise disjointness test applies to:
  • The handle of any rightmost sentential form is:
  • Which of the following statements are true for a grammar which has the following rules?
A --> Ab
A --> bB
A --> bC
  • Which of the following statements are true for a LL algorithm?
  • The purpose of left factoring is
  • Which of the following are phrases of the right sentential form T * F + id given the grammar:
E --> E + T | T
T --> T * F | F
F --> ( E ) | id
  • Which of the following languages have implicit declarations?
  • Aliases can be created by which of the following language constructs?
  • Which of the following languages allow nested subprograms?
  • Which of the following is true?
  • Which of the following is a problem with dynamic scoping?
  • Which of the following languages support dynamic scoping?
  • Consider the following definition in C:
void f() { int arr[20]; .... }
  • Languages with dynamic type binding are implemented using:
  • Which variables are created using operator new?
  • Which language supports both explicit heap-dynamic and stack-dynamic objects?
  • Which of the following languages does not provide built-in-pattern matching operations (the language, although, has pattern matching capabilities included in its class libraries)?
  • Which language treats enumeration variables like integer variables?
  • Which of the following array types can grow and shrink during program execution (please, remember that although subscript ranges of some array types are dynamically bound, they remain fixed during the lifetime of the array)?
  • Which of the following languages do not specify array index range checking for arrays?
  • Which of the following languages uses column major order?
  • Elliptical reference is one in which:
  • Which of the following statements are true?
  • What does the following code illustrate?
float* ptr1 = new float;
float* ptr2;
ptr2 = ptr1;
delete ptr1;
*ptr2 = 2.5;
  • Which language supports both rectangular and jagged arrays?
  • What kind of array is defined in the followig Java definition:
int[] a = new int[10];
  • In which of the following languages do all operators have the same level of precedence?
  • Which of the following operators are usually right associative in C-based languages?
  • Side effects usually occur when a function:
  • Which of the following conversions are narrowing?
  • Which languages support the operator "==="?
  • Suppose a=3, b=2, c=1. What is the result of the following expression in C89? a > b > c
  • Which of the following expressions allow short-circuit evaluation?
  • Which of the following languages does not support user-defined operator overloading?
  • Which of the following languages does not allow mixed-mode assignment?
  • What is coercion?
  • What is the minimal collection of control statements that is enough to code an algorithm that can be expressed by a flowchart?
  • Which language has an explicit stepsize parameter for counter-controlled loops?
  • The loop parameters can be changed in the loop body in a way to affect loop control in:
  • Which of the following languages does not have a counter-controlled loop statement that uses the for special word?
  • The C# switch statement differs from that of C in that:
  • In which languages can nested if statements be interpreted ambiguously?
  • Which of the following languages allow only Boolean (not arithmetic) expressions for loop control in the for statement?
  • What does the break statement do in C and C++?
  • Which of the following languages does NOT have a predefined loop statement that is controlled by a data structure?
  • Which of the following languages does NOT have a goto statement?
  • Aliases can be created by which of the following parameter passing methods?
  • Which of the following are disadvantages to local stack-dynamic variables in subprograms?
  • Which of the following languages do not require parameter type checking?
  • Which parameter passing method would be preferred (in terms of storage) when a large array is to be passed to a subprogram that does not modify it?
  • Which of the following are advantages to pass-by-reference?
  • In deep binding, the referencing environment for executing a subprogram passed as a parameter is:
  • If functions are compiled separately from the main program in C++, which of the following function definitions are valid?
  • Which of the following languages allows functions to be returned from functions:
  • Which of the following is true for coroutines?
  • The generic methods of which language support wildcards?
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